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How APUs Play a Significant Role in Airport Emissions

APUs are being used in a dysfunctional fashion, and the environment is being ignored.

The use of Auxiliary Power Units (APU) in airports is becoming excessive, environmentally harming, and costly. Furthermore, the amount of time that the plane’s jet engines are idling is adding more fuel to the fire. The push to replace the use of these APUs for ground power units (GPU) instead could effectively improve a variety of areas.

Breaking Down the Issue with APUs

The APU is designed to perform three essential functions: starting the airplane’s main engines, providing adequate power to the plane when the main engines aren’t running, and providing compressed air to the plane’s air conditioning unit. Now, if you break it down, the ground power and air conditioning unit can be easily replaced by the use of electrical equipment, which in turn will reduce emission levels. Now, this isn’t the only concern that many airports are facing today. There are also numerous issues that revolve around economics, ramp congestion, and fuel savings. There are problems that a ground power unit can fix, if utilized in conjunction with an APU correctly.

Understanding Ground Power Units

These ground power units come in a variety of electrical power levels. For instance, many smaller airports have 28 volt power supplies attached to a cart that drives out to the airplane when it is taxied. However, due to financial constraints, the push to switch to electrical power has left many ground power units operating solely on diesel. This just adds to the environmental issues that airports are currently facing.

Now, let’s move on to the problems created by APUs. The overall issue of emissions at airports are becoming a serious concern all across the country. And, APUs are playing a significant role in adding to this problem. APU usage generates three sources of emission: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide. Consider the amount of flights that go on in one day – that’s one huge cluster of gas being pumped out every second. You can see why red flags are being raised all over the place.

The solution itself isn’t an easy one. There are numerous factors and limitations that must be considered. However, with the right push, and funding, there could potentially be a substantial change coming in the future. These current problems can be fixed, and hopefully there will be significant changes with the development of new technologies.

Article by Start Pac. Start Pac can supply you with the highest quality 28 volt battery pack for your aircraft. Trust the specialists at Start Pac and visit them online today.

Basic devices in a computer network

A computer network is made of multiple devices that are connected physically and logically to enable communication between each other and devices outside the network. When designing a network for a workplace or for a home it is important to understand the basics of designing a network and the various components. Here is a basic rundown of the various devices.


This is the device that provides a connection to an external network like the internet. Every home and office with an internet connection will connect their network to a router.


This device sits between the router and the rest of the internal network. It provides several levels of protection for the devices and is also used to control access to certain resources. For example, a router could allow certain users to use certain services and bar others from doing so. In addition, some higher-level firewall will detect malware and other problematic traffic and block them.


Any network that requires access to physical network ports will also need a switch. A switch routes traffic internally between computers and to other devices like the firewall. A gateway is defined on each of the computers (that is usually the firewall) and that is the destination for traffic that is considered to be external to the network.

Access point

Wireless network access has become a necessity in any environment. Some organizations no longer have a physical network and access only using Wi-Fi. Access points are the physical devices that provide that access to the network.

Avoid Scams When You Shop Online

Shopping online is becoming more and more popular, especially with the convenience of smartphones and tablets. When looking for online shopping deals, consumers often turn to less traditional websites that they might not be familiar with because they advertise prices at largely reduced rates when compared to large retailers. This method can be disastrous if you’re not careful.

Avoid scams when shopping online by implementing the following tips:

Only Shop Securely

One of the most important factors to consider when discount shopping is whether or not you’re using a secure website.

Secure websites will always start with “https” instead of just “http”. The additional “s” at the end signifies that the website uses an SSL certificate to ensure that your information is being protected when you shop and when you check out.

Read Reviews of eCommerce Stores First

If you plan on shopping at an eCommerce store that you’ve never heard of before, try to locate customer reviews first. They’ll tell you whether or not the website is a scam, how good the customer service is, and what type of quality you can expect from the products.

Online stores that have mostly negative reviews should be avoided at all costs.

Stay Clear of Rock Bottom Deal Websites

It might be tempting to buy a purse for $50 from a discount website that normally costs $1,000, but in most cases, you’ll either be buying a fake or you won’t receive anything at all.

Deals that sound too good to be true probably are!



The Underlying Reason Why Medical Device Coatings Are Needed Today

Medical device coatings are a huge step in today’s advancing field of medicine.

In the world of medicine, catheters and other invasive devices have become the focal point for experimentation. It’s an exciting prospect as device developers and manufacturers incorporate new coating technologies that are improving the way that these devices function within the body. In order to create a safe product, there must be substantial research performed beforehand to ensure that it offers a solution to the patient. Here is a brief rundown on why medical device coatings are created and why they’re utilized in today’s field of medicine.

Why is There a Need for Medical Coatings?

Medical devices are coated through thin film evaporation for many reasons. One of the most common is to provide the device with more properties beyond what its base substrate offers. This can include anything from an easy glide into the body, to attaching drugs or biologically active compounds onto the device itself. This can provide substantial benefits to the human body such as lowering the risk of infection post-insertion, reducing blood clots, and countering the body’s rejection of the invasive device. The human body is naturally designed to reject foreign objects. And, for example, when a catheter is inserted, clots can form and create significant health issues for the patient if left untreated.

To sum it up, medical devices are coated with numerous compounds for health benefits and to provide additional resources for specialists to counter the weight of contraindications. Whether the device is coated or not, depends on the characteristics of the coating, as well as the reason for applying it.

Denton Vacuum, LLC is the leading manufacturer for thin film evaporation. For inquiries on products, please visit Denton Vacuum, LLC online today.

Three Reasons that Nuclear Power Will Continue to Grow

In the next 20 years, the population of the world will explode by more than 2 billion people. In developing nations especially, that surge will put a great strain on the power grid. Fossil fuels are beginning to show their shortcomings, and renewable energy is not yet sustainable. The path forward will involve a hybrid strategy, with nuclear power leading the way.

Power Demands

In addition to the normal demands of the power grid, which are already stressed under a growing population, water shortages are contributing as well. Desalinization is just one method, and it’s incredible power hungry. Nuclear power would be able to provide enough to handle the load of running these plants, while helping to reinforce the power grid of the future.

According to experts like Dev Randhawa, countries like China want to aggressively push into the nuclear power sector. Randhawa points out that countries, like Saudi Arabia, require a baseload. Dev points to the big freeze that occurred in Canada as a good example of what happens when you rely too much on any one power source. Nuclear power is a far more viable option for developing nations, where power consumption is even higher than developed nations like the US and China.

Clean Energy

Coal burning plants use fresh water to cool them off for logistical reasons, but nuclear plants don’t have that problem. They can be relocated to coastlines, using seawater to cool the plant. If Australia moved to nuclear, it would help conserve precious water for more than four million people. It was also estimated that nuclear was the most cost effective option to help restrict rising temperatures through non-carbon energy generation.

Choosing Which Voltage to Utilize For Your Aircraft

It’s important to understand the differences between volts within a battery system.

Written by: Start Pac

Almost every aircraft type requires some type of electrical energy to operate their navigation, lights, COM and NAV radio’s, intercom, and other electronic frameworks. Now, this electrical system is comprised of a batter and an alternator or generater on older aircraft. All of this is connected through meters (or kilometers on larger aircraft) of wire.

Know Your Electrical System

Even for the experienced pilot, it pays to have some fundamental information of the electrical frameworks of his or her air ship, which could be a life saver if an emergency were to occur.

Automobiles and your normal homebuilt aircraft typically runs on a 12 volt electrical system where the battery, alternator and electrical gear is intended for these voltages. In any case, other, generally larger aircrafts, have 28 volt power supplies in their frameworks.

12 Volt or 28 Volt?

The system that you will choose for your aircraft doesn’t really matter. Either the 12- or 28 volt battery pack will run reliably and operate all the equipment within the aircraft. So, at first glance, there really isn’t too much of a difference in deciding which system to utilize.

Likewise, most producers have hardware that can run on either voltage or are selectable – this is not by any stretch an issue. Be that as it may, if you wish to utilize your automobile to kick off your airplane, this necessity may guide you towards a 12 volt framework. In the case you require less weight and more cranking power for starting the engine, consider using a 24- or 28 volt ground power unit.

Corvus Introduces Lithium Ion Alternative

Written by: Start Pac

Lithium ion batteries have more uses in the tugboat industry than one might think.

You may not think that a tugboat has much in common with a tug, but a Canadium battery company has created an innovative way to provide power for electric GSE. Corvus Energy has been conduction tests of GSE to run on a lithium GPU. They have already developed a Rug Technologies MA series tug retrofit, and is also continuing to work on retrofit kits for new test projects. Corvus is also selling factory-installed kits that allow OEM’s to ship a fully electric unit right to the customer.

The Birth of Corvus

The company began developing their batteries back in 2009 for use in the hybridization of heavy commercial vessels like tugboats. The first installations showed fuel costs falling 25 percent as well as maintenance bills dropping30 percent. Additionally, other tests have shown that there are huge reductions in carbon emissions.

A Breakdown on Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries, as well as the lithium ground power unit, are a common source of power for most phones, laptops, and other electronic devices. Increases in power management technology are allowing batteries to power up electric cars that are currently coming on the market. Most lithium ion batteries are built in a similar fashion.

There are individual cells that are put together with two electrodes and separated by an electrolyte. Now, depending on whether the cell is charging or discharging, lithium ions tend to flow between the electrodes. This flows to the external circuit, which powers up the battery itself – making it prime for portable power.

The Many Methods of Optical Thin Film Deposition

to find the right technique that benefits you.

There are numerous processes when it comes to the manufacturing of optical thin films. Some of the most common methods include: thermal, ion beam evaporation, ion beam assisted deposition, and ion beam sputtering. Each method provides its advantages in the formation of optical film and each provide value and limitations.

When it comes to coating manufacturers, you’ll find that many of them use only one of the methods rather than multiple to make it appear that a single approach is more beneficial.

Ion Assisted Deposition

Ion beam deposition is a variant of the e-beam evaporation process. E-beam evaporation adds a high-energy ion beam that is directed at the coating substrate. The ions tend to act like an atomic hammer that produces a high film density – much higher than evaporation alone. Furthermore, ion beams cal also be utilized to pre-clean and etch the substrate’s surface to improve its’ overall film adhesion. The result of this high coating density is an improved mechanical durability, greater environmental stability, and a lower scatter – without the use of electron beams.

Ion Beam Sputtering

Ion beam sputtering coats are produced within a vacuum chamber. When it comes to IBS, high-energy ion beams are directed at the target – which is typically a metal or an oxide. The ions then transfer the momentum towards the substrate causing molecules to sputter off. The high-energy atoms are then deposited as coats onto the substrate. Throughout the process, oxygen is typically present at low pressure within the coating chamber to act as a reactant when creating oxides on metal targets.

Some advantages to using ion beam sputtering include: extremely uniform results, high density, excellent adhesion, and environmental stability. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the deposited layers is extremely low, which tend to yield infrared and visible levels. Deposition rates are relatively low when compared to other coating styles. But, the control and reproducibility levels are high, which makes it possible for performance targets to be hit with a greater precision than most evaporation techniques. This is beneficial for the user, because of the production of steep edge filers and multi-wavelength mirrors. Additionally, this process can occur through full automation, meaning that it does not require the supervision of an operator. One of the biggest drawbacks to IBS however, is that it only works with a limited range of materials  – typically metal oxides.
Denton Vacuum, LLC is a supplier and manufacturer of the finest deposition products. If you are looking for a thermal evaporation system that screams quality, visit Denton Vacuum, LLC online today.

How Trivial Mistakes Can Lead to Dead Airplane Batteries

Summary: Carelessness and neglect are two reasons why batteries aren’t pumping out an optimal stream of electricity.

If you’re a proud owner of an airplane, then you’re more than likely to come across one of the most common maintenance issues that plague nearly everyone – battery issues.

Most owners tend to leave their plane idling for longer than they would like. Naturally, doing so will allow the battery to naturally discharge a bit each day it’s left running. Furthermore, connecting the battery to an automotive battery charger could result in a loss of water within the electrolytes. Instead, consider utilizing a ground power unit, as it will essentially give your internal battery a much-needed break.

How to Notice a Dead Cell

If you take off the cap of a flooded battery, take a second to look at the innards. If nearly every cell is bubbling rapidly, they’re functioning properly. More so than often, you’ll notice that there are a few cells that are stagnant. These indicate that they are more than likely to be dead. As stated before, utilizing either a diesel electric hybrid GPU or any other type of ground power unit will prevent many of these issues from occurring. Although batteries are built to last in this day and age, carelessness can result in the death of a brand new battery. Keep yourself disciplined when it comes to the maintenance of your airplane – you already know that it isn’t the cheapest of things when it comes to repair costs.

Bio: Start Pac manufactures the finest gas turbine start up systems on the market today. For more information, visit Start Pac online today.